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October 31, 2012

Natural Disasters

Other kinds of disasters, such as earthquakes, provide no this sort of warning, from the result that the surrounding populace is taken by surprise. After a disaster has hit an area, corporations are destroyed and homes are lost. Residents have to find temporary lodging, and corporations have to determine whether to repair and rebuild their facilities, cease operations or relocate to yet another area altogether. To some degree, the level of devastation that the natural disaster leaves behind determines the level of repair and reconstruction that occurs. A single natural disaster can also leave different damage in its wake. For example, Hurricane Andrew leveled much of Homestead, Florida, but did considerably less damage towards the city of Miami.

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Even in areas which are hardest hit, some residents and companies manage to survive intact although others are entirely lost. Besides communication problems, transportation is often a problem in natural disasters, producing it hard to move goods into or out of a disaster area. In some cases, roads are merely destroyed, even though in other cases, airports, railroads and major routes to the area suffer varying degrees of damage. This not only creates it difficult for rescue workers and those offering immediate support to get to the area, but it places one more economic burden on a area in terms of capital needs for rebuilding. Agriculture is 1 of California's largest industries, and a lot California agriculture is historically shipped inside Southern California ports. Although there was small damage on the state's agricultural marketplace directly, shipments have been shifted to ports in Northern California due to the logistical difficulties within the south (Johns 4A). Steinmetz, Greg. "Quake-Related Claims Against Insurers are Now Expected to Total $4 billion.

" Wall Street Journal (March 21, 1994): A2. The insurance marketplace and the government have undertaken a series of studies designed to show how natural disasters can better be funded, and scientific jobs is getting done to mitigate the effect that disasters have on property. Despite these measures, it is possibly that People in america will continue to witness widespread devastation not merely when disasters occur, but within the economic disasters that follow behind. It is the insurance firms which can suffer a tremendous quantity of loss and upheaval while they're located far within the genuine event. Insurance businesses provide protection since many men and women putting their dollars together supply protection against a few of people becoming hurt catastrophically. From the early 1990s, nature caught up from the insurance businesses and the variety and scope of natural disasters far outweighed what most insurers were prepared for. McLeod, Douglas. "Industry Execs Stress Need for Change." Organization Insurance 27 (January 18, 1993): 3-4.

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October 29, 2012


Jeff Rosensweig, associate professor of international company and finance in the Goizueta Firm School, says,

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Trained, educated people can work tough in conjunction with global business. For example, Motorola isn't just a company. Motorola is often a university, and they're surely efficient at what they do. And they're doing it in China. They are wise adequate to know you happen to be not heading to market Motorola phones in China unless you might be also seen as component on the education infrastructure. Though I worry about gross inequalities, there is a heck of a good deal additional literate people, in particular literate women, in China, than there's ever been in human history (3).

Even beyond training, what distinguishes Motorola from quite a few other businesses moving to foreign countries to produce a profit is its commitment for the folks within the target culture. Its determination to honor and promote the culture of the people it hires and does corporation with creates normal run-of-the-mill "diversity" training glimpse as a phony, half-baked way of avoiding lawsuits rather than a sincere attempt to create respect. According to Carnella Hardin, "Motorola has gone so far as to open a special center for cultural training at its headquarters in Schaumburg, Illinois," wherever it is putting hundreds of its managers via short courses. Mr. Moorthy, a Malaysian who runs the training center, says, "It is imperative that we understand all national cultures and respect all.

Although for awhile in the early nineties, even Motorola's top management admitted "our top quality stinks," due to the fact revisiting a management philosophy that it originated in times past the Six Sigma methodology, which features a perfection rate of 99.9997%, Motorola has enjoyed exceptionally high merchandise high quality (5). Even if these had been Motorola's only strengths, it could well be considered the most successful businesses from the global electronics market.

Technologically, Motorola is still a giant at property and abroad. "Today, Motorola continues to be a leader in wireless, automotive, and broadband communications technologies. In 2003, it deployed its very first third-generation (3G) nationwide voice and info network using Code Division Numerous Entry 1X (CDMA 1X) technology in conjunction with KDDI, Japan's second largest wireless operator. Motorola is also one of the corporate world's leading users of streaming video and on the internet collaboration tools" (12). In 2004, it extended its Canopy wireless broadband technology allowing wireless web service providers to provide broadband to non-DSL areas to other European countries right after a successful one-year trial within the Irish market (13). In 2005, it has signed an extension to its long running deal with ITV Sales to sponsor the channel's movies. This can be a major deal that will enable the mobile phone giant.

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October 26, 2012

Martha Stewart

The following day Stewart forwarded a copy of this email to her daughter, Alexis Stewart. On August 12, 2002, the grand jury investigating the situation issued a subpoena to Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia (MSLO) looking for documents with regards to the sale of ImClone stock and all desktop and laptop computers applied by Stewart and several other MSLO employees. MSLO reached a compromise with the Government, agreeing to supply the computers and the Federal government agreeing not to examine the computers until MSLO identified the files pertinent towards the ImClone sale, due to the fact they did not want to give the federal government access to all their firm files. They also handed more than files under the exact same conditions. They submitted logs of documents, and determined how the emails from Stewart to her attorney and her daughter have been privileged and neither appeared on the logs. However, MSLO inadvertently omitted the June 24 email to Stewart's daughter during the privileged list and it was created accessible to the Government in the difficult copy logs. As being a result, the grand jury returned an indictment on June 4, 2003 charging Stewart with conspiracy, obstruction of justice, creating false statements, and securities fraud.

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Shortly afterwards, an Assistant United States Attorney, not knowing from the agreement in between MSLO and also the Government.

Throughout the trial, the Federal government portrayed Stewart as a liar who had conspired with her stockbroker to cover up that she had sold her ImClone stock in December, 2001 after learning that Waksal and his a couple of daughters have been selling thousands of shares they held from the company (Lazaroff, Skertic and Countryman, 2004). Waksal was convicted in 2003 of insider trading and is serving a seven-year sentence in a federal prison.

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October 25, 2012

Leadership Components

66). The methods where successful leaders attain this motivation vary from 1 individual towards next, and leaders who are successful in one corporation may possibly find that they're not successful in others, due to the fact the business culture has significantly influence over the leadership and motivational styles that are strong in any particular case (Bolman & Deal, 1991, p. 267).

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Finding the key to motivating workers can trigger managers passing more responsibility to workers. By giving employees the opportunity to direct their individual tasks and accomplish goals which they have had influence in setting, managers can discover how the overall productivity within the corporation increases at the same time that employee morale also increases. In this framework, the leader serves not being a supervisor passing judgment on an employee's performance, but as a facilitator who is produce to aid the employee use the resources at hand to be able to gain the maximum benefit inside experience. Motivation becomes the effort of helping the employee gain what the employee and manager agree are important goals towards the organization, but also to attain goals which have a personal meaning towards the employee (Wheatley, 1994, p. 67).

There are 2 straightforward kinds of leadership: transactional and transformational. The transactional leader provides leadership in accordance with the modern situation and offers leadership for your moment.


However, just like a leader's effectiveness depends on his personal traits, so the traits of a company or an organization, the company culture, also determines the accomplishment of the leader's techniques. An company exactly where employees have not had own responsibility for their actions is really a hard organization exactly where to introduce Theory Z components. Employees need to first be empowered, and trained in how to use that power, prior to they can be brought to the thing of assuming own responsibility for their work.

Many of the tasks that a leader performs are centered on the choice creating process. The ways in which a leader makes decisions can be directly affected by the situation wherever the leader finds himself, but also on a environment which he has implemented within the organization. When employees are given a high level of discretion and encouraged to create their own decisions, the leader sets the tone and provides the framework inside which these decisions are made. In this way, there is a close relationship among the choice generating process and also the leadership process in the organization. This synergistic decision doing technique leads to decisions which are consistent throughout the organization, regardless from the person who originated the decision, and which are in keeping from the leader's (and the organization's) overall goals and objectives.

The fourth frame regarded may be the symbolic frame, that is certainly in accordance with social and cultural anthropology. The symbolic frame considers that businesses are cultures with their unique rites and ceremonies, mythology, heroes and stories as distinct as any other culture. Thus employees hear in the "IBM Way," or a legendary manager with whom myths concerning performance are associated. In some organizations, meetings demand flip charts and overhead projections, in the resultant "action items" transcribed onto paper to become inserted into organizers at a later time.

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October 24, 2012

Demonstrating Effective Supervision in HRM

Thus, selecting an employee requires that a supervisor or HRM professional know the needs of the job and be in a position to determine via interviews and careful analysis of references, applications, and any testing utilized in ass?essment in the ability of an applicant to meet expectations.

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Bohlander and Snell (215-218) also suggest that in selecting employees, supervisors along with HRM professionals must use particular choice strategies to summarize facts for the applicant. Numerous test instruments measuring skills aptitudes, and behaviors along with knowledge are offered in human resource management but judicious use of such screening is very recommended. Both equally significant, according to Bohlander and Snell (212-214O), is developing an interview format that does not include inappropriate questions such as people targeting intimate knowledge of the private nature (e.g., a particular age rather than regardless of whether one is more than the age of 18)

HRM professionals must also be thoroughly knowledgeable with respect to federal and state regulations impacting upon hiring (Bohlander and Snell, 80-81). This includes knowledge about affirmative action programs if applicable, problems relating to the older applicant or the disabled applicant, as well as other matters impacting upon compliance in the law. Bohlander and Snell (342) extra note that when it comes to performance appraisals.

Employers and supervisors faced with the necessity of disciplining an employee have to have correct documentation in hand (Weiss, 11). Thus, discipline usually begins of the employee handbook and any policies and procedures delineating career duties and obligations. Employers are suggested to obtain an employee's signature on any written warning that may be placed in their personnel files. The signature just isn't necessarily an admission of wrongdoing, but is an acknowledgement that a warning has been given. In some cases, a supervisor is well suggested to acquire a third party (from HRM and/or an employee's union) provide at any disciplinary procedure.

In some instances as described by Bohlander and Snell (339), the performance appraisal systems exhibit problems. These difficulties include inadequate preparation over a part with the manager, unclear or inconsistent performance standards, inflated ratings and/or overemphasis on uncharacteristic performance, poor training of supervisors with respect to evaluation as well as the provision of feedback, and managerial dislike of the face-to-face confrontation of appraisal interviews. To avoid these common pitfalls, Bohlander and Snell (341) extremely recommend that HRM and departmental supervisors create an appraisal plan that addresses organizational standards and outcome measures directly with respect to the individual's obligations in people areas. Several graphic rating scales in addition to behavioral ways are accessible for this task, but Bohlander and Snell (366) nation that there is no single set of most effective practices for powerful performance appraisals. Consequently, appraisals must be tailored to meet the needs not just of an industry or a company, but also on the particular work roles and expectations that are associated of the job.

While performance appraisals can be tough for managers, disciplining employees is even additional complex.

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October 23, 2012

The Negotiating Strategies for Labor Management

Workers' control, in effect, became moribund subsequent towards end of the Second Globe War. Before the economic depression on the 1930s, the thought of workers' manage was continuously attacked by management. Workers managed, nevertheless, to exert essential levels of manage over jobs standards and processes in quite a few areas of endeavor, in spite of managerial attempts to deny workers a voice.

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By the end on the 1970s, workers' manage and union power inside smokestack industries had been all but dead (Walters and Langdon, 1992, pp. 579-587). Workers' control inside developing high-tech industries, however, was gaining strength, although, as additional conventional managements replaced the creative entrepreneurial managements in these industries, the concept of workers' control came under increasing attack by management.

In the conduct of labor-management negotiations, the impact on wage levels is no longer the major objection of most managers to labor unions (Walters and Langdon, 1992, pp. 579-587). The central objection inside the contemporary economic environment may be the rigidity on the union structure that always creates it difficult for businesses to react inside a timely manner to rapidly changing international economic problems (Gilmour, 1992, pp. 513-517).

Therefore, even though the impact on a method of determining wage levels remains an important thing with respect to labor union activity, it may no longer be the central factor with respect to these organizatio

Labor unions obtain improvements for their members in wages and working conditions from the program of bargaining collectively of theemployers of their members (Walters and Langdon, 1992, pp. 579-587). After the collective bargaining program doesn't trigger a mutually agreed on contract, workers may possibly (collectively) strike to be able to enforce their requirements (Feller, 1992, pp. 539-547).

In general, labor unions are businesses of employees that are established to bargain collectively with employers over matters of wages, hours, as well as the problems of job (Feller, 1992, pp. 539-547). Unions are, in theory (and most always in practice), democratic institutions whose central purpose stands out as the improvement on the economic conditions of their members, with a secondary purpose of improving societal problems (Gilmour, 1992, pp. 513-517).

ns (Walters and Langdon, 1992, pp. 579-587). Further, the capacity of labor unions to affect the wage determination program is not the only factor that ultimately determines whether organized labor will continue to exert a formidable presence from the American economy (Gilmour, 1992, pp. 513-517).

Occupational safety and well being concerns also offer a motivation for labor union membership. Occupational safety and wellness has been a major trouble in industrial economies, nearly due to the fact their inception. Organization management in industrial societies has, for your most part, traditionally resisted the introduction of improved safety and well being conditions for employees--usually over a grounds that these kinds of introductions are not economically feasible. Inside free-market American economy, most on the significant improvements in employee safety and wellness


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October 22, 2012

The Glass Ceiling and Women The unseen

The authors indicated that one important area that was underrepresented in the literature was the decision-making processes in American organizations that are applied in making selections for promotion to top-management positions (Powell & Butterfield, 1994, pp. 68-86).

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The new data analyzed by the authors were collected for the period extending from January 1987 through February 1992. A large department of the federal government was the participating organization. Data were collected in relation to 32 positions that were filled in the department during the relevant period, and to the actions of the review panels that assessed the qualifications, and the actions of the selection officials who made promotion recommendations in relation to the 438 applicants for the 32 vacancies (Powell & Butterfield, 1994, pp. 68-86.

The researchers hypothesized that gender would influence promotion decisions in such a way that women would receive less favorable outcomes than men in the selection of personnel for top-management positions.

The implied null hypothesis held that no statistically significant differences would exist in the response distributions. As the data presented in Table 3 indicate, however, the response distribution differences were statistically significant at p<.001. Thus, the implied null hypothesis was rejected, and it was found that a statistically significant preponderance of the respondents thought that fewer women were selected for promotion to upper-level management at the focus organization because an overt company policy causes fewer women than men to be inducted into lower- and middle-levels of management.


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October 19, 2012

Business Organizational Behavior

Customers are being repositioned as codevelopers and creators of individual experiences, with organizations and lead shoppers owning joint or shared roles in education, shaping of experiences, and cocreating market acceptance for products and solutions and services. It's clear that this approach to "customer service" and satisfaction moves beyond the fundamental tenets of Total High quality Management (TQM), which started out some 25 years or additional ago to stress the necessity of making over simply meeting consumer needs and expectations (Stahl, 1995). TQM in action demonstrated that "customer value" does not consist solely of eliminating product defects; rather, client value was known during the TQM organizational framework as having quite a few dimensions which ought to be systematically determined in the firm's merchandise and services. Customer-value determination systems had been produced in quality-driven corporations to garner input from shoppers that was translated into solution refinement, modification and development (Stahl, 1995).

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What Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2000) propose moves dramatically beyond enhanced customer importance and satisfaction via high quality management. Inside diversified organization, managers started out some time ago to regard the company as being a collection of (possibly) interlinked competencies.

To accomplish these goals, organizations "must produce opportunities for clients to experiment with after which decide the level of involvement they want in producing a given experience having a company (Prahalad & Ramaswamy, 2000).

tomers as a group and as people have come to be an additional valuable source of competence which could be harnessed to acquire and retain competitive advantages. Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2000) identify four essential tasks that managers must perform to create use of buyer competence:

The creation of superior consumer value is accomplished as a result of an organization's capacity to continually generate intelligence about customers' expressed and latent needs and about how to satisfy those people needs. Typically, intelligence generation has been treated as a generic exercise in the firm but the new competitive environment necessitates the development of a a lot more customer-focused and interactive intelligence-generation capacity (Slater & Narver, 2000). Again, the world wide web along with other information technologies are ideal vehicles for gathering such intelligence and making the "customer communities" that Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2000) have described. Digital communities are cost-effective meeting places for your firm and its customers, and also supply rapid turn-around and information exchange.


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October 17, 2012

An Analysis on 3 Seminal Books in Organizational Theory

Perhaps the most helpful part of the entire book is between pages 10 and 23 where they provide a historic time line of the varying theories and their impact on social development.

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Of course, since the time line runs from Socrates to 1990, there are 12 critical years of organizational development and theory which are left out, most particularly all of the changes connected with the Internet and other aspects of computer connectivity. A second level of value could be found in the way that the authors choose to organize the work. In the first section, "Classical Organization Theory" they cite works by Socrates, Adam Smith, Babbage, Towne, Fayol and others.

The authors cited here all dealt with the human cost of work and organization, and treated labor as value added. This section is followed by the "Human Resources" section where the value added nature of human capital is considered. Agreeing or disagreeing with the author's choices is instructive only insofar as it provides us with a method of understanding how the authors view the history of organizational behavior studies.

Complex Organizations: A Critical Essay

(Perrow, C.,1986, New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education)

In a very great sense, this book is also a survey look at organizational theory with one major exception. Where Shafritz and Ott's work went inside the minds of numerous theorists, with Perrow's work, we always stay withi

Morgan credits previous scholars who conceived "open systems theory," a system of beliefs that was, in itself, a metaphorical leap between biological organizations and human organizations and came up with this simple conclusion. "The notion of a system may be seen as simply a more self-conscious and generic term for the dynamic interrelatedness of components" (Henkoff, 1995, 85). Morgan follows systems theory traditions when he says that he will explore the "organismic" metaphor by considering:

Etzioni, A. (1975), A Comparative analysis of complex organizations: on power, involvement, and their correlates, New York: Free Press.

All three of these books assume the point of view that managing in an environment of uncertainty is yet another situation of management of diversity. Today, authors and theorists, when they discuss their projected visions for the future, must deal with one inescapable paradigm: how the changes in the diversity of the workplace will impact the corporation of the future, particularly on the role of the organizational structure.

This is the Age of Paradox . . .organizational members and stakeholders and contemporary workers [are] routinely faced with paradoxes at work, at home, and with society's basic values. Paradoxes are no stranger to total quality management (TQM) as well. The pursuit of total quality requires leaders and followers to think and act in ways that are very different from their prior modes of operation and, in some cases, that seem to be based on contradictory principles--a paradox (Etzioni, 1975, 81).

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October 16, 2012

Influence of Hip-hop Music to Black Americans

To identify the posts of the linkage, however, an account of Kitwana's line of argument and political analysis is necessary. The spine of his thesis is that young African American males are uniquely disadvantaged by social structure on a single hand but on the other are also uniquely opaque to self-scrutiny or criticism from non-African American sources--to the former in no tiny part because of hip-hop culture's practically programmatic hostility to bourgeois literacy and mainstream convention, and for the latter on account of would-be critics' apparent reluctance to risk owning any such criticism reduced towards label of racism (xxi).

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Kitwana sees this being a crisis simply because imperviousness to seeing hip-hop clearly and whole (i.e., for great and/or ill) rather than as an icon of glamour along with a beacon of anything like hope has maybe unintended effects. For example, that attitude may be preventing black male youth from achieving entry to a whole range of social goods.

Nothing about Kitwana's subtext must be interpreted as his dismissal of rap/hip-hop, which he characterizes as "the most essential cultural success of our generation" (22). Indeed, the industry achievement of hip-hop produced heroes and cultural icons where none had existed just before and from among he most unlikely of sources. What he does insist on, however, is that hip-hop culture and the values it sanctions are rife with contradictions that an assertion of its complexity does not sufficiently answer. The trouble is how the contradictions also do not, in Kitwana's view, sufficiently permit hip-hop to address issues which are inside background of its subjects of discourse--poverty, relationship chaos, and inequitable distribution of other social goods.

Chuck D. is at pains not to produce an apology to your in-your-face attitude and contentiousness of Public Enemy, each ahead of audiences and in dealing with media as well as other exponents of pop culture, for ones reason that his subtext is often a message of black pride and elevated social power. Ought to that occur about at the expense of white social and economic power, Chuck D. is perfectly content. His text inside book, while perfectly literate, can be a discover in street language, that is certainly being contrasted on the formal diction of Kitwana.

He does, however, indirectly acknowledge that his judgment as artist and person might be fallible. He cites his association of the (etiquette-challenged) artist Professor Griff, which produced a series of public-relations issues for Public Enemy, and like Kitwana, he deplores the "gangsta" cult from the rap/hip-hop scene. Further and maybe more important, Chuck D. is right to recognize that rap and hip-hop art has uniquely communicated with its principal audience of young black male youth, who either can not or usually do not communicate with parents, teachers.

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October 15, 2012

The Myth of Icarus

However, after Daedalus manufactured the labyrinth, he helped Theseus to kill the Minotaur and thereby free Athens from its required yearly human sacrifice to the Minotaur. Minos punished Daedalus by imprisoning him and Icarus in a tower and posting permanent guards on all roads and at the seaport to prevent their escape (Roberts & Jacobs 830). Their only route of escape was by air. So Daedalus fashioned a couple of pairs of wings made of feathers and wax. As they have been about to fly away, Daedalus warned Icarus not to fly too near the sun mainly because the heat would melt the wax and destroy the wings. However, "[i]n the glory of flight . . . Icarus forgot his father's warnings and started to soar higher and higher toward the sun. He continued to mount upward, despite his father's passionate cries, until the wax melted as well as the wings fell apart; he plunged to the sea and drowned" (Roberts & Jacobs 830).

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Artists have included the myth of Icarus into their jobs in a variety of ways. As Turner notes, it's almost certainly most often used as being a parable intended to educate readers around the dangers of ambition (Turner 14). However, there are other interpretations and versions in the story in classical writers. Generally, these interpretations employ Icarus being a symbol of overconfidence, either childish or ambitious (Turner 21). W. H. Auden and Edward Field both make use on the myth of Icarus in their poetry.

The structure of Auden's poem echoes his theme of unobserved suffering. Auden doesn't introduce the myth of Icarus until the final eight lines with the poem, thus decreasing the apparent importance with the myth. Nonetheless, the poem is leading up to the discussion of Brueghel's Icarus as well as the Icarus myth, and thus, the myth is indeed central towards the theme of the poem. But Auden's theme is that suffering occurs whilst life goes on around you and by placing his discussion from the myth at the end of the poem, the structure now parallels the theme: "In Brueghel's Icarus, for instance: how everything turns away/ Very leisurely in the disaster" (lines 14-15).

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October 4, 2012

American Civil War: Impact on North and South

The American Civil War was the only major war that was waged from the United States. The contest was among the Union, from the Northern States, and also the Confederate States of The united states in the South, which was newly formed due to their desire to keep slavery. The North, through the leadership of Republicans, was opposed to slavery. As soon as Abraham Lincoln became President in 1860, the Southern States declared their independence inside Northern States. The Union, however, regarded as it as rebellion and responded by taking the States back into its fold.
Through the leadership of Gen. Grant and Gen. Sherman, the Confederate Army surrendered in 1865. Around 620,000 soldiers died during the Civil War, such as countless civilians. The end result, however, was the end of slavery inside the United States. Along with this, the united states of America became stronger, together on the role of the Federal Government.
Impact on a South
There have been crucial impacts with the Civil War on a South. The primary impact is, of course, the end of slavery. The economy from the South was heavily dependent on cotton farming, which was tended by black slaves. With slavery gone, the Southern States had to search alternative ways in which to help the Southern economy. In addition to that, an additional critical disadvantage that the South experienced is the devastation of fields, homes, and railroad tracks (Henrietta, David, & Dumenil, 2001).
On the part of Black People in america in the South, they became emancipated from slavery and they began exercising their freedom and whilst there had been even now critical difficulties that they have to surmount, they became active participants in the development of society.
Impact on the North
Through the Civil War, the North’s view of liberty became additional defined through the emancipation. The Thirteenth Amendment was approved by Congress and became component of the social fabric with the United States. The economic design of industrialization practiced by the North also became the dominant mode within the country. This is an additional advantage for your North.
The disadvantage, perhaps, was the way where ammunitions and fire arms became frequent during the North. Military equipment became an entrenched firm in the North. Over a other hand, Black People from both the North and South joined the Union Army and had been initiated towards road of improvement of their lives. Possibly one of the most critical advantage achieved by the Civil War through Lincoln’s leadership will be the freedom gained by 4 million Black American slaves in 1865.
The range of casualties during the American Civil War is simply staggering. It is the bloodiest war inside history with the United States. Although some social inequalities persisted even following the Emancipation Proclamation of Lincoln and the Thirteenth Amendment, the freedom of slaves is on the other hand an significant milestone inside history from the United States and its vision of freedom and liberty.
The South as well as the North may perhaps have fared differently following the Civil War and you can find a variety of political and economic difficulties that have not been resolved by war, yet the Government from the United States was able to consolidate its power right after the War.
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